Ancient Libraries

There are three famous library of Ancient Period. The first one is Alexandria Library in Egypt, the second one is Pergamum library in Anatolia ancient Turkey, The third one is in Ephesus Ancient City Anatolia. Ancient Libraries


Celsus library of Ephesus was built in Roman period of Ephesus ancient city located at Selcuk ,Turkey. It was dedicated to pro council (Senator) Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus (135 A.D ) by the son Gaius Julius Aquila senator 110 AD

ancient libraries

It was built as mausoleum for Celsus who buried in a tomb underneath the library building. It was unusual to have sarcophagus in the middle of the city but this was special thank a big hour the celsus. Library stored over 12.000 scrolls made of papyrus material. Celsus library destroyed by the earthquakes many times , interior section was destroyed in the third century AD When Ephesus has been abandoned by the Ephesians, like the other monuments of the ancient city library totally destroyed and did not re-built until archaeological restorations. The façade of the library has been re-built in between 1970 and 1982. It is one of the highlights of Archaeology world at the moment. Celsus library and the books has been destroyed by the fire and earthquakes in about 262 AD It’s believing that none of the books survived. The façade of the library has been converted to public fountain ( Nymphaeum) in 400 AD Ephesus ancient city and the library excavated by Austrian Archaeologist in between 1903-1905 most of the architectural material now exhibiting in Vienna and Istanbul museums. Ancient Libraries

Interior of the library not restored the façade of the building on the East for morning sun. It was built on a platform with nine steps and three entrance , there are two sets of corinthian columns, niches on the façade for statutes , They could reached to the second level by the steps built from interior section of the library, they had also smaller niches at the walls for scrolls. They used concrete , brick and mortared rubble material for construction. Ancient Libraries


Pergamum (Pergamon ) kingdom in between 325 – 132 B.C ruled by the Attalid Dynasty located on the northwest of Turkey two hours driving distance from Izmir , Turkey. It was one of the well known and famous Kingdom of Hellenistic period. Pergamum library was the second largest library of Ancient Period was built in the second century B.C by Eumenes II. It was located on the northern side of the Acropolis with about 200.000 books. When the library of Alexandria burnt down during the occupation of Egypt ,the books of Pergamon given to the Cleopatra as a wedding gift by Mark Anthony.


Ancient records mentioned that when the library of Pergamon has been established , Egyptians refused to export Papyrus material, that was a big handicap for Pergamon library. They discovered out Parchment from thin sheet of goat or sheep skin.


It was the largest library of Ancient period was built in third century B.C by Ptolemy II. Its estimated to have 400.000 to 700.000 books in the ancient library. First destruction of the library was made by the romans during the occupation of Egypt by Julius Caesar. It has been replaced by Mark Anthony with the books of Pergamum library. Unfortunately library has been destroyed with civil war in fourth century AD , but actually it has survived until 7 century AD it was totally burnt down with Arabic Raiders. Ancient Libraries

ancient libraries